Polkadot guide

In a rapidly evolving world of blockchain technology, Polkadot (DOT) emerges as a game-changer with its powerful vision of creating a truly interoperable network of blockchains. As a sharded multichain protocol, Polkadot is poised to revolutionize the way blockchains communicate, share data, and create value. So, what makes Polkadot stand out among the giants like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano? Let’s dive into the fascinating world of Polkadot and explore its unique features, the founding team, network security, governance model, and the ever-growing ecosystem of tools and platforms.

Short Summary

  • Polkadot (DOT) is a protocol designed to enable interconnected blockchains and facilitate cross-chain transfers.

  • The vision of Polkadot is to create an open, secure and interoperable decentralized web with DOT providing staking, governance voting & bonding functions.

  • Key components include the Relay Chain, Parachains, Parathreads & Bridges that provide interoperability with external blockchains.

Understanding Polkadot (DOT)

The Polkadot protocol is a groundbreaking innovation in the blockchain space, designed to connect specialized blockchains and facilitate cross-chain transfers, ensuring seamless interoperability among them. Its native DOT token serves three clear purposes: staking, governance voting, and bonding tokens.

At the heart of Polkadot lies the vision of a decentralized web powered by interconnected blockchains, including both public and private chains, working together as a unified network. But what is the driving force behind Polkadot, and how does its unique architecture make it possible?

Let’s take a closer look at its vision and key components.

The Vision of Polkadot

Polkadot’s vision, as conceived by its founder, Dr. Gavin Wood, is to create a decentralized web where users have full control over their identity and data, securely protected from central authorities. By connecting multiple networks and providing unparalleled economic and transactional scalability, Polkadot aspires to become the “internet of blockchains.”

It enables users to access services and applications on different blockchains without having to transition between them, fostering a more open, secure, and interoperable blockchain network.

Key Components of Polkadot

The Polkadot network revolves around four core components: the Relay Chain, Parachains, Parathreads, and Bridges. The Relay Chain is the main blockchain responsible for coordinating the entire system, including the user-created parallel chains called Parachains.

Parathreads, on the other hand, operate on a pay-as-you-go model and do not require constant connection to the Relay Chain. Bridges enable the transfer of value and data between Polkadot and external blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, further enhancing the network’s interoperability.

The Founding Team: Driving Innovation in Blockchain

The founding team behind Polkadot comprises accomplished blockchain and cryptography researchers and developers, including Dr. Gavin Wood, Robert Habermeier and Peter Czaban, all influential figures in the world of technology. They have been pioneers in various fields. Among them, Dr. Gavin. Wood stands out as the most notable figure, given his significant influence in the industry as Ethereum’s co-founder and creator of the smart contract coding language, Solidity.

Together, they have propelled Polkadot to the forefront of blockchain innovation, addressing the limitations of existing networks and unlocking the true potential of a connected, decentralized web.

Dr. Gavin Wood

Dr. Gavin Wood is a highly-regarded technologist in the blockchain space, known for his role as Ethereum’s co-founder and the creator of the Solidity programming language. He founded Polkadot with the aim of fulfilling Ethereum’s unmet potential by building a more scalable, secure, and interoperable blockchain network.

In addition to his work with Polkadot, Dr. Wood is also the founder and Chief Technology Officer of Parity Technologies, a company focused on creating cutting-edge blockchain infrastructure.

The Web3 Foundation

The Web3 Foundation is a Swiss non-profit organization dedicated to supporting the development of Polkadot and other Web 3.0 technologies. It plays a crucial role in fostering the growth of the Polkadot ecosystem by providing funding, research, and resources needed for the advancement of the protocol.

With a mission to create a decentralized and equitable internet, the Web3 Foundation is committed to empowering developers, entrepreneurs, and users to build and shape the future of the connected blockchain ecosystem.


Polkadot’s Network Security: Nominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS)

To secure its network, Polkadot employs a unique consensus mechanism called Nominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS). In NPoS, validators are responsible for confirming transactions from different parachains, while nominators back validators by staking their DOT tokens. This system ensures the network remains secure and resistant to attacks, while also fairly rewarding participants for their contributions.

Let’s delve deeper into the roles of validators and nominators, as well as other key players in Polkadot’s network security.

Validators and Nominators

Validators play a crucial role in securing the Polkadot network by staking their DOT tokens and verifying transactions on the Relay Chain. Nominators, on the other hand, are DOT holders who choose to support validators by delegating a portion of their DOT to them.

In return, nominators receive a share of the DOT earned by their chosen validator as staking rewards. This collaborative process of staking and validating ensures Polkadot’s network remains secure, while also fairly distributing rewards among its participants.

Collators and Fishermen

In addition to validators and nominators, Polkadot’s network security also relies on the roles of collators and fishermen. Collators are responsible for collecting data from parachains and submitting it to the relay chain, ensuring the proper functioning of the network.

Fishermen, on the other hand, act as watchdogs, monitoring the network for any malicious activity or invalid transactions. By working together, these diverse roles maintain the integrity and security of Polkadot’s ecosystem.

Polkadot’s Governance Model: Empowering Users

Polkadot is set to introduce a new on-chain governance model called Governorship version 2 (Gov2), which aims to reduce the concentration of voting power and replace the Technical Committee with the Polkadot Fellowship.

This innovative model will feature a voting system that allows anyone to submit proposals and have them approved by the community. By empowering users to have a say in the protocol’s future, Polkadot’s governance model fosters a truly decentralized and democratic decision-making process.

Voting Mechanisms

Polkadot’s Gov2 will incorporate various voting mechanisms that enable users to vote on proposed changes to the protocol, such as upgrades or new features. These mechanisms include referendums with the unique concept of Adaptive Quorum Biasing, which adjusts the required majority based on voter turnout, and batch approval voting, which allows voters to rank multiple proposals in order of preference.

By providing users with a variety of voting options, Polkadot ensures that its governance model remains fair, inclusive, and decentralized.

Polkadot Fellowship and Gov2

The Polkadot Fellowship will replace the Technical Committee in Gov2 and will be responsible for developing and maintaining the Polkadot protocol. Comprised of technical experts, the Fellowship will act as a self-governing body that represents the voice of the technical community, ensuring that the protocol’s development remains aligned with the needs and interests of its users.

By giving users a say in the protocol’s evolution, Polkadot’s Gov2 governance model fosters a more inclusive and democratic decision-making process.

The DOT Token: Utility and Market Performance

The DOT token, released in 2017 via an ICO, serves three primary functions within the Polkadot ecosystem: staking, governance voting, and bonding tokens. With no hard limit on its supply, the market performance of the DOT token has been volatile, experiencing several peaks and troughs since its launch.

In May 2021, the price of DOT reached an all-time high of $49.80, reflecting the growing interest in and adoption of the Polkadot network. Let’s examine the tokenomics and price evolution of DOT in more detail.


The tokenomics of DOT encompass various aspects, such as staking rewards, network fees, governance voting, and validating rights. Polkadot’s annual emission rate is set at 10%, with stakers receiving 14% in rewards for participating in the network’s security.

The DOT token also plays a crucial role in Polkadot’s governance model, granting holders voting rights on proposals and protocol changes. By offering a range of utilities, the DOT token serves as the backbone of the Polkadot ecosystem.

Price Evolution

The price evolution of the DOT token has been marked by volatility, with several notable peaks and troughs since its release in 2017. Its all-time high of $49.80 in May 2021 showcased the growing interest in and adoption of the Polkadot network.

Despite fluctuations in its price, the DOT token remains a key component of the Polkadot ecosystem, driving its growth and development as a leading blockchain platform.

Polkadot Ecosystem: Tools and Platforms

Polkadot offers a diverse range of tools and platforms for developers to experiment with and build upon. Two notable examples within the Polkadot ecosystem are Substrate and Kusama, which provide powerful development environments for creating custom blockchains and testing new applications.

These platforms not only demonstrate the versatility of Polkadot, but also enable developers to explore the full potential of blockchain technology.

Substrate: Building Custom Blockchains

Substrate is a development tool for Polkadot that allows developers to build their own blockchain while maintaining compatibility with the Polkadot ecosystem. This powerful framework offers a modular approach to blockchain development, enabling developers to customize their chain architecture and select components that best suit their needs.

With Substrate, developers can create blockchains that can be seamlessly connected to Polkadot as a parachain or parathread, fostering a more open and interconnected ecosystem.

Kusama: The Experimental Playground

Kusama serves as an experimental platform for developers to trial their blockchain applications before deploying them to the Polkadot network. Built on Substrate, Kusama offers a sandbox environment with lower entry barriers, faster upgrades, and less rigorous governance parameters than Polkadot.

This “canary network” allows developers to test new features and technologies in a more forgiving setting, enabling them to refine and perfect their applications before launching them on Polkadot’s mainnet.

Comparing Polkadot to Other Blockchain Networks

In the vast landscape of blockchain networks, Polkadot stands out for its unique approach to addressing the limitations of existing platforms, such as scalability, interoperability, and governance. By providing a structure for easily constructing specific blockchains and connecting different networks, Polkadot has emerged as a powerful contender in the world of blockchain technology.

Let’s compare Polkadot to other established networks, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano, to better understand its strengths and potential impact.

Polkadot vs. Bitcoin

While Bitcoin focuses on becoming a global decentralized network for payments, Polkadot aims to be a multi-chain platform that enables interoperability between blockchains. This fundamental difference in purpose highlights the versatility of Polkadot in comparison to Bitcoin.

By connecting multiple networks and providing a framework for creating custom blockchains, Polkadot offers a more scalable and adaptable ecosystem, addressing the limitations of Bitcoin’s single-chain architecture.

Polkadot vs. Ethereum

Ethereum, often regarded as the pioneer of smart contract platforms, has its own set of limitations, including issues with scalability and network congestion.

Polkadot is designed to address these challenges. It gives developers a framework to create bespoke blockchains and also enables communication between independent networks. This multi-chain application ecosystem allows Polkadot to offer a more scalable, secure, and interoperable environment, setting it apart from traditional platforms like Ethereum.

Polkadot vs. Cardano

Cardano, another leading blockchain platform, focuses on the development of decentralized applications (DApps) and improving network efficiency. Although both Polkadot and Cardano address the limitations of Ethereum, they take different approaches to do so.

Polkadot’s multi-chain application ecosystem enables seamless communication and data transfer between blockchains, while Cardano’s double-layer infrastructure aims to improve DApp development. Both platforms showcase the potential of blockchain technology, but Polkadot’s unique approach to interoperability sets it apart from its peers.


In conclusion, Polkadot stands out as a groundbreaking blockchain platform with a powerful vision of creating a truly interconnected network of blockchains. Its unique architecture, innovative governance model, and diverse ecosystem of tools and platforms set it apart from established networks like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano. As the world of blockchain technology continues to evolve, Polkadot is poised to be a major player in driving the future of a more open, secure, and interoperable decentralized web.

Frequently Asked Questions

Although a Polkadot price prediction of $1,000 is not impossible, it remains difficult to predict when such a level may be reached. Investment decisions should be taken with caution and should be based on thorough research and risk management strategies.

It would be wise to diversify your portfolio to mitigate risks and make the most of any potential upside. Ultimately, whether Polkadot can reach $1,000 depends on multiple factors and cannot be guaranteed.

Overall, investing in Polkadot carries a degree of risk as it is a relatively newer cryptocurrency with highly volatile prices.

However, analysis suggests that its current risk score indicates it is a moderate risk investment.